- The Kidneys Revealed — The structure and function of components of the mechanical and hormonal systems of the kidneys.
- Renal Dysfunction — What happens to cause decreased renal function and why.
- Electrolytes and the Kidneys — Find out why your patient’s electrolytes are out of range and what you can do about it.
- Kidneys and Fluids: The Balancing Act — Discover how the kidneys act to maintain fluid balance and osmolality; and how to find problems before they occur.
Have you ever wondered?
- What the serum osmolality means to your patient?
- How to anticipate electrolyte disorders?
- When do drugs and IV dye affect renal function?
If you are like many other healthcare professionals, you might find fluids and electrolytes to be intimidating; renal function to be mysterious, and concepts like osmolality to be downright confusing. But, wait…now there’s hope!
In “The Kidneys in Detail” Carla J. Moschella, MS, PA-C, RDN, explains the complexities of fluids and electrolytes in simple terms that you will be able to understand and gives you practical ways to use the information at the bedside with your next patient.
If you have a hard time explaining to your patients about why their potassium is low for the third day in a row, or how certain drugs can cause renal dysfunction, or why it is important that you measure intake and output, then you need to go back to the basics with the help of a mentor who can really make the information easy and understandable.
Most of us learned about anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology in school where we were focused primarily on passing the class. We memorized and we studied, but we quickly forgot.
You learn differently now. With years of healthcare experience, your brain has learned to classify your professional information into “file folders” based on your clinical experiences. Now, when you go back to learn these concepts, your brain will put the information into the correct “folder” to use the next time you encounter a patient with that problem. In other words, you will retain the information now that you have a way to organize it.
Understanding the essential concepts of renal anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology will help you find patient complications faster and respond to them more appropriately. In addition:
- You will communicate more effectively with physicians and your peers
- You will feel more confident
- You will provide safer and more effective care
The Kidneys Revealed
- Structural Components
- Fluid regulation
- Waste filtration
- Electrolyte Control
- Hormone Regulation
- Blood pressure control
- Bone metabolism: vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone
Electrolytes and the Kidneys
Kidneys and Fluids: The Balancing Act
- Sodium Levels
- Normal volemic states
- General Management Principles
- Acute Renal Failure
- Diagnostic Tests
- Labs and Results
- Presentation (Signs/ Symptoms)
- Chronic Renal Failure
- Risk Factors
- Signs and Symptoms
- Analyze how the kidneys filter waste products and maintain normal levels of fluid and electrolytes.
- Interpret BUN and creatinine in a clinical setting and understand why they become abnormal.
- Describe why hyperkalemia and hyperphosphatemia occur in patients with kidney disease and how they are treated.
- Identify the role the kidneys play in blood pressure control and bone health.
- Identify those patients at risk for chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury.
- Explain the relationship between diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension and declining kidney function.
- Recognize medications that are useful for treating kidney disease and those that pose a risk for patients with kidney disease.